Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)

v3.20.2
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation

The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of its 50.1% subsidiary, EOW and 51% subsidiary, Paradise Medlife. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

The accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission for interim financial information, which includes consolidated unaudited interim financial statements and present the consolidated unaudited interim financial statements of the Company and its majority-owned subsidiary as of March 31, 2020. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary to present fairly our financial position, results of operations, stockholders’ equity (deficit) and cash flows as of March 31, 2020 and 2019, and for the periods then ended, have been made. Those adjustments consist of normal and recurring adjustments. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in our annual financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles have been condensed or omitted. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 and footnotes thereto included in the Company’s Report on Form 10K filed with the SEC on May 22, 2020. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year.

 

Going concern

These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are presented on the basis that the Company will continue as a going concern. The going concern concept contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. No adjustment has been made to the carrying amount and classification of the Company’s assets and the carrying amount of its liabilities based on the going concern uncertainty. As reflected in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, the Company had a net loss attributable to Exactus Inc. common stockholders of $2,789,684 for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The net cash used in operating activities was $164,283 for the three months ended March 31, 2020. Additionally, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $23,919,063 and working capital deficit of $3,677,275 at March 31, 2020. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for a period of twelve months from the issuance date of this report. Management cannot provide assurance that the Company will ultimately achieve profitable operations or become cash flow positive, or raise additional debt and/or equity capital. The Company is seeking to raise capital through additional debt and/or equity financings to fund its operations in the future. Although the Company has historically raised capital from sales of common and preferred shares and from the issuance of convertible promissory notes, there is no assurance that it will be able to continue to do so. If the Company is unable to raise additional capital or secure additional lending in the near future, management expects that the Company will need to curtail its operations. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments related to the recoverability and classification of assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.

 

Over the last several months the Company and its advisors have been evaluating numerous opportunities and relationships to increase shareholder value. The Company expects to realize revenue through its efforts, if successful, to sell wholesale and retail products to third parties. However, as the Company is in a start-up phase, in a new business venture, in a rapidly evolving industry, many of its costs and challenges are new and unknown. In order to fund the Company’s activities, the Company will need to raise additional capital either through the issuance of equity and/or the issuance of debt. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company received proceeds from the sale of the Company’s Common Stock of approximately $100,000, related party advances of $85,000 and issuance of a note of $22,461.

 

In March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus) caused by a novel strain of the coronavirus was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and the outbreak has become increasingly widespread in the United States, including in each of the areas in which the Company operates. The COVID-19 (coronavirus) outbreak has had a notable impact on general economic conditions, including but not limited to the temporary closures of many businesses, “shelter in place” and other governmental regulations, reduced business and consumer spending due to both job losses and reduced investing activity, among many other effects attributable to the COVID-19 (coronavirus), and there continue to be many unknowns. While to date the Company has not been required to stop operating, management is evaluating its use of its office space, virtual meetings and the like. The Company continues to monitor the impact of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) outbreak closely. The extent to which the COVID-19 (coronavirus) outbreak will impact the Company’s operations, ability to obtain financing or future financial results is uncertain.

 

Use of Estimates

The Company prepares its unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP which requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. In preparing the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated balance sheet, and revenues and expenses for the period then ended. Actual results may differ significantly from those estimates. Significant estimates made by management include, but are not limited to the fair value of derivative liabilities, useful life of property and equipment and intangible assets, fair value of right of use assets, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, contingent liabilities, and fair value of non-cash equity transactions.

 

Fair Value Measurements

The Company adopted the provisions of Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures”, which defines fair value as used in numerous accounting pronouncements, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosure of fair value measurements. The guidance prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value and establishes a three-tier value hierarchy that distinguishes among the following:

 

Level 1—Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access.

 

Level 2—Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active and models for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.

 

Level 3—Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.

 

The Company measures certain financial instruments at fair value on a recurring basis. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis are as follows at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019:

 

    At March 31, 2020                     At December 31, 2019                  
Description   Level 1       Level 2       Level 3       Level 1       Level 2       Level 3    
Derivative liabilities               $ 773,924                 $ 880,410  
                                                 

 

A roll forward of the level 3 valuation financial instruments is as follows:

 

      For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020  
Balance at beginning of period   $ 880,410  
Change in fair value included in derivative gain     (106,486 )
Balance at end of period   $ 773,924  

 

As of March 31, 2020, the Company has no assets that are re-measured at fair value.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of those investments approximates their fair market value due to their short maturity and liquidity. Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and amounts on deposit with financial institutions, which amounts may at times exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on such accounts and do not believe the Company is exposed to any significant credit risk. The Company had $0 cash balances in excess of FDIC insured limits at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Cash and cash equivalents were $9,541 and $18,405 at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.

 

Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts

The Company has a policy of providing an allowance for doubtful accounts based on its best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable.  The Company periodically reviews its accounts receivable to determine whether an allowance is necessary based on an analysis of past due accounts and other factors that may indicate that the realization of an account may be in doubt.  Account balances deemed to be uncollectible are charged to bad debt expense and included in the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, allowance for doubtful accounts amounted to $32,583 and $13,991, respectively. Bad debt expense amounted $18,592 and $0 during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets

Total prepaid expenses and other current assets - current amounted to $123,760 and $248,776 at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Total prepaid expenses and other current assets – long term amounted to $15,959 and $0 at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Prepaid expenses to C2M who is a related party, amounted to $622,159– current portion and $2,333,523 – long-term portion at March 31, 2020. Prepaid expenses to C2M who is a related party, amounted to $622,160 – current portion and $2,492,045 – long-term portion at December 31, 2019. Prepaid expenses consist primarily of costs paid for future services which will occur within a year. Prepaid expenses may include prepayments in cash and equity instruments for an operating lease, consulting, and insurance fees which are being amortized over the terms of their respective agreements. 

 

Inventory

The Company values inventory, consisting of raw materials, growing plants and finished goods, at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on the first-in and first-out (“FIFO”) method. The Company reduces inventory for the diminution of value, resulting from product obsolescence, damage or other issues affecting marketability, equal to the difference between the cost of the inventory and its estimated net realizable value. Factors utilized in the determination of the estimated net realizable value include (i) estimates of future demand, and (ii) competitive pricing pressures. In accordance with ASC 905, “Agriculture”, all direct and indirect costs of growing hemp are accumulated until the time of harvest and are reported at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Included in inventory is the Company’s hemp crop under cultivation on farm acreage leased by the Company. The cost of the hemp crop under cultivation is determined based upon costs to purchase industrial hemp seed and industrial hemp cuttings, plus farm labor, fertilizer, water and power, the cost to harvest and cost for drying services. The costs of planting, cultivating and harvesting the Company’s hemp crop are capitalized to hemp crop inventory under cultivation, when incurred. The Company determined the cost allocation of the hemp crop (hemp flowers and hemp cuttings) based upon a proforma Market Value Method. However, based upon current actual sales prices and after reviewing national sales trends, the Company established an inventory reserve to write down the inventory to net realizable value which is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonable predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation or shipping. The Company recorded impairment expense on inventory of it finished goods- hemp flowers of $553,440 (see Note 4) during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and was included in cost of sales as reflected in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.

 

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation.  Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets ranging from 3 to 10 years. The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred; major replacements and improvements are capitalized. When assets are retired, or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed, and any resulting gains or losses are included in the unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations.

 

Impairment of long-lived assets

In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value.

 

Derivatives and Hedging- Contracts in Entity's Own Equity

In accordance with the provisions of ASC 815 “Derivatives and Hedging” the embedded conversion features in the convertible notes (see Note 9) are not considered to be indexed to the Company’s stock. As a result, these are required to be accounted for as derivative financial liabilities and have been recognized as liabilities on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The fair value of the derivative financial liabilities is determined using a binomial model with Monte Carlo simulation and is affected by changes in inputs to that model including the Company’s stock price, expected stock price volatility, the expected term, and the risk-free interest rate. The derivative financial liabilities are subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date and any changes in fair value is recognized as a component in other income (expenses).

 

Revenue Recognition

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC Topic 606 and the related amendments, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which requires revenue to be recognized in a manner that depicts the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts that reflect the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenue by applying the following steps:

 

Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer.

 

Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract.

 

Step 3: Determine the transaction price.

 

Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.

 

Step 5: Recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.

 

The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied at the point in time when products are shipped or delivered to the customer, which is when the customer has title and the significant risks and rewards of ownership. Therefore, the Company’s contracts have a single performance obligation (shipment of product). The Company primarily receives fixed consideration for sales of product. Payments received from customers that are related to unshipped or undelivered products are recorded as unearned revenue until the shipment of product.

 

Cost of Sales

The primary components of cost of sales include the cost of the product, and, indirect cost such as utilities, farm lease expenses, and depreciation expenses on farming equipment related to production and harvesting period.

 

Research and Development Expenses

The Company follow ASC 730-10, “Research and Development,” and expenses research and development costs when incurred.  Accordingly, third-party research and development costs, including designing, prototyping and testing of product, are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or milestone results have been achieved. Indirect costs are allocated based on percentage usage related to the research and development.   Research and development costs of $0 and $15,000 were incurred for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and are included in operating expenses on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.

 

Advertising Costs

The Company applies ASC 720 “Other Expenses” to account for advertising related costs. Pursuant to ASC 720-35-25-1, the Company expenses the advertising costs when the first time the advertising takes place. Advertising costs were $57,050 and $50,531 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and are included in selling and marketing expenses on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations.

 

Shipping and Handling Costs

The Company accounts for shipping and handling fees in accordance with ASC 606. The amounts charged to customers for shipping products are recognized as revenues and the related costs of shipping products are classified in selling and marketing expenses as incurred. Shipping costs included in selling and marketing expenses were $16,588 and $548 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

Reclassifications

Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. The reclassified amounts have no impact on the Company’s previously reported financial position or results of operations.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-based compensation is accounted for based on the requirements of the Share-Based Payment Topic of ASC 718 which requires recognition in the financial statements of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments over the period the employee or director is required to perform the services in exchange for the award (presumptively, the vesting period). The ASC also requires measurement of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award based on the grant-date fair value of the award.

 

Through March 31, 2018, pursuant to ASC 505-50 - Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees, all share-based payments to non-employees, including grants of stock options, were recognized in the consolidated financial statements as compensation expense over the service period of the consulting arrangement or until performance conditions are expected to be met. Using a Black Scholes valuation model, the Company periodically reassessed the fair value of non-employee options until service conditions are met, which generally aligns with the vesting period of the options, and the Company adjusts the expense recognized in the consolidated financial statements accordingly. In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for nonemployee share-based payment transactions by expanding the scope of the stock-based compensation guidance in ASC 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from non-employees. ASU No. 2018-07 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted, but entities may not adopt prior to adopting the new revenue recognition guidance in ASC 606. The Company adoption did not have any material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

 

The expense is recognized over the vesting period of the award. Until the measurement date is reached, the total amount of compensation expense remains uncertain. The Company records compensation expense based on the fair value of the award at the reporting date. The awards to consultants and other third-parties are then revalued, or the total compensation is recalculated, based on the then current fair value, at each subsequent reporting date.

 

Related Parties

We follow ASC 850, “Related Party Disclosures,” for the identification of related parties and disclosure of related party transactions.  

Earnings per Share

We compute basic and diluted earnings per share amounts in accordance with ASC Topic 260, “Earnings per Share”. Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if preferred stock converted to Common Stock and warrants are exercised.  Preferred stock and warrants are excluded from the diluted earnings per share calculation if their effect is anti-dilutive.  For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the following potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per shares because their impact was anti-dilutive:

 

    2020     2019  
Stock Options     4,809,822       5,434,375  
Stock Warrants     2,014,299       1,362,833  
Restricted stock to be issued upon vesting     3,651,379       -  
Convertible Preferred Stock     9,460,845       5,542,212  
Convertible Debt     10,833,865       250,000  
Total     30,770,210       12,589,420  

 

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes pursuant to the provision of ASC 740-10, “Accounting for Income Taxes” (“ASC 740-10”), which requires, among other things, an asset and liability approach to calculating deferred income taxes. The asset and liability approach require the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided to offset any net deferred tax assets for which management believes it is more likely than not that the net deferred asset will not be realized.

 

The Company follows the provision of ASC 740-10 related to Accounting for Uncertain Income Tax Positions. When tax returns are filed, there may be uncertainty about the merits of positions taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. In accordance with the guidance of ASC 740-10, the benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, management believes it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Tax positions taken are not offset or aggregated with other positions.

 

Tax positions that meet the more likely than not recognition threshold are measured at the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely of being realized upon settlement with the applicable taxing authority. The portion of the benefit associated with tax positions taken that exceed the amount measured as described above should be reflected as a liability for uncertain tax benefits in the accompanying balance sheet along with any associated interest and penalties that would be payable to the taxing authorities upon examination. The Company believes its tax positions are all more likely than not to be upheld upon examination. As such, the Company has not recorded a liability for uncertain tax benefits.

 

The Company has adopted ASC 740-10-25, “Definition of Settlement”, which provides guidance on how an entity should determine whether a tax position is effectively settled for the purpose of recognizing previously unrecognized tax benefits and provides that a tax position can be effectively settled upon the completion and examination by a taxing authority without being legally extinguished. For tax positions considered effectively settled, an entity would recognize the full amount of tax benefit, even if the tax position is not considered more likely than not to be sustained based solely on the basis of its technical merits and the statute of limitations remains open.  The federal and state income tax returns of the Company are subject to examination by the IRS and state taxing authorities, generally for three years after they are filed.

 

Non-controlling interests in consolidated financial statements

In December 2007, the FASB issued ASC 810-10-65, “Non-controlling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements, an amendment of Accounting Research Bulletin No. 51” (“SFAS No. 160”). This ASC clarifies that a non-controlling (minority) interest in subsidiaries is an ownership interest in the entity that should be reported as equity in the consolidated financial statements. It also requires consolidated net income to include the amounts attributable to both the parent and non-controlling interest, with disclosure on the face of the consolidated income statement of the amounts attributed to the parent and to the non-controlling interest. In accordance with ASC 810-10-45-21, those losses attributable to the parent and the non-controlling interest in subsidiaries may exceed their interests in the subsidiary’s equity. The excess and any further losses attributable to the parent and the non-controlling interest shall be attributed to those interests even if that attribution results in a deficit non-controlling interest balance. On March 11, 2019, the Company acquired a 50.1% limited liability membership interest in EOW, pursuant to a Subscription Agreement and a Membership Interest Purchase Agreement (see Note 3) and has the right to appoint a manager of the limited liability company. Additionally, on July 5, 2019, the Company acquired a 51% limited liability membership interest in Paradise Medlife (see Note 3).

 

Gain (loss) on Modification/Extinguishment of Debt

In accordance with ASC 470, “Gain (Loss) on Modification/Extinguishment of Debt”, a modification or an exchange of debt instruments that adds or eliminates a conversion option that was substantive at the date of the modification or exchange is considered a substantive change and is measured and accounted for as extinguishment of the original instrument along with the recognition of a gain or loss. Additionally, under ASC 470, a substantive modification of a debt instrument is deemed to have been accomplished with debt instruments that are substantially different if the present value of the cash flows under the terms of the new debt instrument is at least 10 percent different from the present value of the remaining cash flows under the terms of the original instrument. A substantive modification is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original instrument along with the recognition of a gain/loss.

 

Leases

In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The updated guidance requires lessees to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for most operating leases. In addition, the updated guidance requires that lessors separate lease and non-lease components in a contract in accordance with the new revenue guidance in ASC 606. The updated guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018.

 

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-02, applying the package of practical expedients to leases that commenced before the effective date whereby the Company elected to not reassess the following: (i) whether any expired or existing contracts contain leases and; (ii) initial direct costs for any existing leases. For contracts entered into on or after the effective date, at the inception of a contract the Company assessed whether the contract is, or contains, a lease. The Company’s assessment is based on: (1) whether the contract involves the use of a distinct identified asset, (2) whether we obtain the right to substantially all the economic benefit from the use of the asset throughout the period, and (3) whether it has the right to direct the use of the asset. The Company will allocate the consideration in the contract to each lease component based on its relative stand-alone price to determine the lease payments.

 

Operating lease ROU assets represents the right to use the leased asset for the lease term and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As most leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company use an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the adoption date in determining the present value of future payments. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is amortized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and is included in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2017-04, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment” (ASU 2017-04). The standard simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Under the amendments of ASU 2017-04, an entity should perform its goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity will recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, but the loss cannot exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. ASU 2017-04 is effective for the calendar year ending December 31, 2020. The amendments require a prospective approach to adoption and early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests. The adoption of this guidance had no impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

The Company has reviewed the FASB issued ASU accounting pronouncements and interpretations thereof that have effectiveness dates during the periods reported and in future periods. We have carefully considered the new pronouncements that alter previous generally accepted accounting principles and do not believe that any new or modified principles will have a material impact on the Company’s reported financial position or operations in the near term. The applicability of any standard is subject to the formal review of the Company’s financial management.

 

Recent Accounting Updates Not Yet Effective

 

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.” This guidance, among other provisions, eliminates certain exceptions to existing guidance related to the approach for intra-period tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. This guidance also requires an entity to reflect the effect of an enacted change in tax laws or rates in its effective income tax rate in the first interim period that includes the enactment date of the new legislation, aligning the timing of recognition of the effects from enacted tax law changes on the effective income tax rate with the effects on deferred income tax assets and liabilities. Under existing guidance, an entity recognizes the effects of the enacted tax law change on the effective income tax rate in the period that includes the effective date of the tax law. ASU 2019-12 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance.